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Jesus’ Resurrection Proven by Early Non-Christian Writers

Posted by FactReal on March 29, 2013

ANCIENT NON-CHRISTIAN SOURCES PROVIDE 100 FACTS ABOUT JESUS
Crowning With Thorns by Caravaggio (Jesus Christ Resurrection)

Crowning With Thorns by Caravaggio

About 18 different ancient non-Christian writers provide more than 100 facts about the birth of Christ, His life, teachings, miracles, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension:

Josephus, Tacitus, Thallus, Phlegon, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius, Emperor Trajan, Emperor Hadrian, the Talmud, Lucian, Mara bar Serapion, etc.

Next are the historical facts of Jesus’ resurrection.

FACT 1. JESUS DIED DUE TO THE RIGORS OF CRUCIFIXION
Jesus was crucified circa 30 A.D. His death was reported by several non-Christian writings:

Ancient sources:
▪ Josephus, Jewish historian, (Antiquities 18.3, 18.64), 1st century
▪ Tacitus (Annals 15.44), circa A.D. 115
▪ Lucian de Samosata, Greek satirist, (The Death of Peregrine, 11-13), circa mid-2nd century
▪ Mara bar Serapion (Letter to his son – currently at British Museum), late 1st-3rd century
▪ Talmud (Sanhedrin 43a), late 2nd century

Crucifixion was a common form of Roman execution

Ancient sources:
▪ Josephus (The Wars of the Jews 5.11.1, 5.6.5)
▪ M. Tullius Cicero (Against Verres 2.5.64)
▪ Cornelius Tacitus (The Annals 15.44)

Crucifixion was a torturous death
The crucified died of
▪ Exhaustion
▪ Asphyxia
▪ Dehydration
▪ Congestive heart failure
Early testimony support
▪ The Roman soldiers pronounced Jesus dead.
▪ Many people witnessed the events of which the writers of the Gospels wrote.
▪ Reported in all four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (circa 1st century).*
▪ The flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier’s spear (John 19:34).*
FACT 2. JESUS WAS BURIED IN A KNOWN, ACCESSIBLE TOMB
▪ Jewish and Roman leaders and people, who witnessed the crucifixion, knew where the tomb was.
▪ The owner of the tomb was a member of the Jewish Sanhedrin named Joseph of Arimathea (Mark 15:43).

Had the Gospels been false on this matter they would not have been able to withstand the swift correction and ridicule from the Jews.
Dead Christ by Champaigne (Jesus Christ Resurrection)

FACT 3. EMPTY TOMB
Jesus’ tomb was discovered to be empty just a few days later
Enemy and critics attested that the tomb was empty.

Ancient sources:
▪ Justin Martyr (Trypho 108)
▪ Tertullian (De Spectaculis 30)

No corpse produced
There is no record from Jewish, Roman, critics and other writings to attest that a body was in the tomb. The enemies of Jesus had every reason to produce a body since it would have benefited them. If any corpse had still been in the tomb, it would have been impossible for Christianity to get off the ground in Jerusalem due to the importance of the Resurrection.

Women testimony of the empty tomb
A woman’s testimony was not highly regarded in those days in Roman and Jewish cultures.

Ancient sources:
▪ Josephus (Antiquities 4.8.15)
▪ Talmud (Sotah 19a); Talmud (Rosh Hashannah 1.8); Talmud (Kiddushin 82b)
▪ Origen (Contra Celsum 2:59; 3:55)
▪ Gaius Suetonius, Roman historian, (The Twelve Caesars, Augustus 44) circa A.D. 115
▪ Luke 24:11*

Embarrassing admissions support historical claims
Even the disciples (who were Jews) thought it was nonsense what the women were saying. (Luke 24:11)
It would have been damaging to the disciples’ claim to invent the story and place women as the primary witnesses. Thus, the empty tomb account appears to be historically credible in light of the principle of embarrassment.
FACT 4. JESUS’ DISCIPLES EXPERIENCED THE RISEN JESUS
The disciples preached that Jesus was raised, that the tomb was empty, and that Jesus ascended.
They preached a seen and living Jesus with whom they partook food; they preached the Ascension with equal vigor.

Ancient sources:
▪ Clement, Bishop of Rome, (First Clement 42:3), A.D. 95
▪ Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, (Letter to the Philippians 9:2), A.D. 101
▪ Clement, bishop of Rome, is reputed to have personally known the disciples, according to two early church fathers, Irenaeus and Tertullian, circa 30-100
▪ Polycarp was, according to Irenaeus, taught by the apostles and knew many who had seen Christ, circa 69-155
▪ Polycarp mentions the resurrection of Jesus 5 times in his letter to the church in Philippi. (Letter to the Philippians 9:2)

Verbal tradition
The ancients relied on verbal tradition to teach others. Later on they were copied into writings which were later compiled into the New Testament. Verbal tradition before the New Testament pointed to Jesus’ original disciples saying that the risen Jesus had appeared to them.

Ancient sources:
▪ Tertullian, African church father (The Prescription Against Heretics, 32)
▪ Irenaeus, early church father (Against Heresies, 3.3.3), circa 185
▪ Irenaeus (Letter To Florinus) (preserved by 4th-century church historian, Eusebius)
▪ Tertullian (Prescription Against Heretics, 32)

Written tradition
We have written tradition that shows the disciples saying that Jesus had appeared to them after he rose from the dead.

Ancient sources:
▪ The 4 Gospels attest to the resurrection of Jesus and report the disciples’ claims that Jesus rose from the dead. The Gospels, all written within 70 years of the crucifixion, testify that Christ rose again.*
▪ Former church persecutor, Paul, claims to have known the disciples firsthand. He wrote the disciples claimed Jesus rose (1 Corinthians 15:9-11, Galatians 2:1-10).*
▪ The creed in 1 Corinthians 15 originated within 5 years of Jesus’ crucifixion. This creed says that Christ died for our sins, was buried, and was raised on the third day and that he appeared to the disciples.*

FACT 5. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DISCIPLES
Caravaggio- Incredulity Of Saint Thomas (Jesus Christ Resurrection)

Incredulity of Thomas by Caravaggio

After Jesus’ resurrection, the disciples receive strength and conviction in the face of martyrdom

The disciples were transformed from doubters who were afraid to identify with Jesus, to bold proclaimers of his death and resurrection, even being willing to die for this belief.

Ancient sources:
▪ Ignatius, bishop of Antioch in Syria, (Smyrn 3:2-3)
▪ Clement of Rome (1 Clement 5:2-7)
▪ Polycarp (Letter to the Philippians 9:2)
▪ Tacitus, Roman historian, (The Twelve Caesars 15.44), A.D. 109
▪ Dionysius of Corinth (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:25:8, 3.1), A.D. 170
▪ Tertullian (Scorpiace 15), A.D. 200
▪ Josephus (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:23), A.D. 95
▪ Hegesippus (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:23), A.D. 165-175
▪ Clement of Alexandria (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:23), A.D. 200
▪ Origen (Contra Celsum 2:56,77), A.D. 230-250
▪ Origen (Commentary on Genesis, volume 3
(cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 3:1)
▪ Luke (Acts 7;12)*

The skeptical Jew, James, was converted by the resurrection
▪ Early creed reports appearance to James (1 Cor. 15:7)*
▪ The Gospels (Mark, John)*

Ancient sources:
▪ Josephus (Antiquities 20:200)
▪ Hegesippus (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:23), A.D. 165-175
▪ Clement of Alexandria (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:1; 2:23), A.D. 200

Conversion of Saul of Tarsus after seeing the risen Jesus
Paul, the great persecutor of Christianity, was converted by the resurrection
(Acts 9:3-9, 17, 22; 1 Cor. 15:8, 9:1; Gal. 1:22-23).
Paul believed to have experienced a personal appearance of the risen Jesus.

Ancient sources:
▪ Clement of Rome (1 Clement 5:2-7)
▪ Polycarp (Letter to the Philippians 9:2)
▪ Tertullian (Scorpiace 15; (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 2:25:8)
▪ Origen’s commentary on Genesis, volume 3 (cited by Eusebius, first church historian, in Ecclesiastical History 3:1)

The disciples stood by their account and paid the price
Jesus Resurrection (Crucifixion Of Peter by Caravaggio)

Crucifixion of Peter by Caravaggio


Would you pay with your life for a lie? Liars make poor martyrs.

The disciples were persecuted and tortured for preaching the Resurrection of Jesus:
▪ Peter was crucified upside down.
▪ Andrew was crucified.
▪ Luke was hanged by idolatrous priests.
▪ Mark was dragged in the streets of Alexandria.
▪ Bartholomew flayed to death with a whip in Armenia.
▪ Thomas was pierced with a Brahmin sword.

These persecutions would have stopped if the disciples had quit preaching the Resurrection message and the Ascension of Jesus. Their preaching was a threat to the reputation of the Jewish leaders.

WHY THE RESURRECTION IS IMPORTANT
▪ The fact that Jesus rose from the dead is the cornerstone of the Christian faith.
▪ The resurrection was proclaimed in Jerusalem where the empty tomb was.
▪ The church was born and grew.

(Jesus Christ Resurrection)(Giotto-Ascension)

Ascension by Giotto

SOURCES
MIT’s Classic Archive: Ancient Authors and their Writings
Dr. Gene Scott: The Resurrection (PDF)
Christian Answers
Catholic Answers
Original Catholic Encyclopedia
The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus
The Case for the Real Jesus
Truth in Action
Risen Indeed
▪ D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, The Da Vinci Myth vs. The Gospel Truth

* The bible is used here as reference to the Christian stories — not as a proof of the Resurrection. However, it is important to know that the bible contains writings within 70 years of Jesus. Other historic writings have a larger span than the bible between the time the original was written and the earliest copy. For example, Plato’s Tetralogies have 1,200 years interval between original and earliest copy. Aristotle’s works have 1400 years span. Homer’s Iliad, 500 years. The bible has more copies in existence of the ancient writings than any other ancient book that we regard as historic: Homer (Iliad), Plato (Tetralogies), Aristotle, Ceaser (The Gallic Wars). Copyist errors are minimal. The New Testament has 77 separate books and letters of ancient times which were later compiled into the bible. So, they serve as early testimonies from Christians.

MORE FACTS:
Resurrection of Jesus Proven by Logic
Resurrection of Jesus: Facts and Evidence (Video)
Ancient Writers Prove Jesus Is Not a Myth
THE REAL THANKSGIVING STORY – As Written by the Pilgrims
CHURCH & STATE SEPARATION IS A MYTH

RELATED
The Absurdity of Not Believing the Disciples Account of Jesus Resurrection
EASTER: Daily Bible Readings

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Funny: Women Test Joe Biden’s Shotgun vs AR-15 (Video)

Posted by FactReal on February 27, 2013

This video is in response to Joe Biden’s stupid advice to women: ‘Buy a double-barrel shotgun; an AR-15, it’s harder to aim.’

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Obama’s Unqualified RINO Approved by Senate for Defense Secretary

Posted by FactReal on February 26, 2013

OBAMA GETS HIS RINO CHUCK HAGEL; AMERICANS LOSE
Allahpundit explains the crazy votes:

The final vote: 58-41, which is a bit closer than the 71-27 margin on cloture earlier today. There are 15 Republicans who think voters are too dumb to realize that the cloture vote is the one that assured Hagel’s confirmation and that, by voting yes on that and no on the meaningless final vote, they can pretend that they “opposed” Hagel. And in fairness, they’re probably right; most voters likely are that dumb. But let’s name those 15 anyway:

Alexander Ayotte Blunt Burr Chambliss
Coburn Collins Corker Flake Graham
Hatch McCain Murkowski Sessions Thune

[...]

I can’t believe a single one of those 15, let alone the scores of Democrats who voted for this guy, seriously believes he’s prepared to run the Defense Department…The next time McCain and Graham pound the table about defense cuts or O’s foreign policy, remember that they both voted to send Chuck Hagel on to the final vote. That’s how serious they are.

As for Republicans voting yes, there were four: Cochran, Johanns, Shelby, and … Rand Paul, who voted no twice on cloture. That’s the most bizarre vote array on a nominee I could imagine.

Liberatarian Rand Paul Voted for Chuck Hagel
Allahpundit writes:

Here’s Paul’s reasoning:

“I voted no because I wanted more information and I think that part of what the Senate does is try to get information about the nominees,” Paul told reporters …“There are many things I disagree with Chuck Hagel on…but the president gets to choose political appointees,” Paul said. [...]

If “the president gets to choose political appointees” is sufficient reason to vote yes, then (a) we should get rid of the Senate’s advise-and-consent responsibility and (b) at the very least we should not be filibustering nominees, as Rand Paul voted to do twice. Even if he did that purely to squeeze the White House for more information, why would he vote yes on the final vote when they never gave him that information? And if the president’s entitled to his nominee of choice, why would Paul demand more info about Hagel in the first place? Just rubber-stamp him. Vote yes on every vote, no questions asked.

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WTC Bombing 20 Years ago…under President Bill Clinton

Posted by FactReal on February 26, 2013

THE FIRST WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING…UNDER PRESIDENT CLINTON
Islamic terrorists attacked Americans many times before September 11, 2001. One of those attacks was the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993.

The Morning of Feb. 26, 1993
“The epicenter was the parking garage beneath the World Trade Center, where a massive eruption carved out a nearly 100-foot crater several stories deep and several more high,” the FBI summarized.

“On the morning of Feb. 26, 1993, Eyad Ismoil drove a rented Ryder Ford F350 Econoline truck packed with 1,500 pounds of fertilizer-based explosives into level B-2 of the underground garage beneath the World Trade Center. Ismoil departed, leaving a timing device set to detonate the explosives a while later.

At 12:18 p.m., the bomb exploded, killing six, creating a crater 150 feet in diameter that blew a hole five floors deep in the parking garage. The towers, however, did not fall. [...]

Yousef, the mastermind of the plot, later said he had hoped to kill tens of thousands.

The explosives were manufactured at a Jersey City apartment, using chemicals ordered from a supply company. They were placed in the truck at a rented storage shed alongside three tanks of compressed hydrogen gas, purchased to enhance the destructive power of the explosives.

The plotters, including Yousef and Yasin, built the bombs using manuals brought from Pakistan.”

WTC Bombing, 1993, Islamic Attacks against USA

1993 WTC BOMBING: An Islamic Attack

Terrorist Organizations: Al-Qaeda, Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya, Liberation Army Fifth Battalion Al Fareeq Al Rokn, Abu Bakr Al Makkee.
IslamicTerroristsWTC1993
Terrorists: Ramzi Yousef (Operational Commander), Eyad Ismoil (Attacker). Facilitators: Mohammad Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, Mahmud Abouhalima, Ahmad Mohammed Ajaj. Financier: Khalid Shaikh Mohammed
Victims: Six people were killed almost instantly: John DiGiovanni, Robert Kirkpatrick, Stephen Knapp, William Macko, Wilfredo Mercado and Monica Smith. “Smoke and flames began filling the wound and streaming upward into the building. Those who weren’t trapped were soon pouring out of the building—many panic-stricken and covered in soot. More than a thousand people were hurt in some way, some badly, with crushed limbs,” the FBI recounted.

The FBI Provides more Details of the Attack and the Terrorists
“An Islamic fundamentalist named Mohammad Salameh had rented the vehicle, we learned, and on March 4, an FBI SWAT team arrested him as he tried in vain to get his $400 deposit back.

One clue led to another and we soon had in custody three more suspects—Nidal Ayyad, Mahmoud Abouhalima, and Ahmed Ajaj. We’d also found the apartment where the bomb was built and a storage locker containing dangerous chemicals, including enough cyanide gas to wipe out a town. All four men were tried, convicted, and sentenced to life.

The shockwave from the attack continued to reverberate. Following the unfolding connections, the task force soon uncovered a second terrorist plot to bomb a series of New York landmarks simultaneously, including the U.N. building, the Holland and Lincoln Tunnels, and the federal plaza where our office in New York is housed. On June 24, 1994, FBI agents stormed a warehouse in Queens and caught several members of a terrorist cell in the act of assembling bombs.

Meanwhile, the mastermind of the World Trade Center bombing was still on the run—and up to no good. We’d learned his name—Ramzi Yousef—within weeks after the attack and discovered he was planning more attacks, including the simultaneous bombing of a dozen U.S. international flights. Yousef was captured in Pakistan in February 1995, returned to America, and convicted along with the van driver, Eyad Ismoil. A seventh plotter, Abdul Yasin, remains at large.

We later learned from Yousef that his Trade Center plot was far more sinister. He wanted the bomb to topple one tower, with the collapsing debris knocking down the second. The attack turned out to be something of a deadly dress rehearsal for 9/11; with the help of Yousef’s uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, al Qaeda would later return to realize Yousef’s nightmarish vision.”

Bill Clinton’s Failures Unleashed Global Terror
Via The Washington Times:

The Clinton foreign policy was to get re-elected. Therefore, anything that might be controversial had to be avoided. So, from the beginning to the end of the administration, the Clintons “demanded absolute proof before acting against terrorists.” This high bar guaranteed inaction. At the beginning of his term, after the attack of Feb. 26, 1993, Mr. Clinton refused to admit that the World Trade Center had been bombed. Later, he referred to it only as “regrettable” and “treated the disaster… like a twister in Arkansas.” Earlier, he had “urged the public not to ‘overreact’ to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.”

SOURCES:
Global Security: 1993 World Trade Center truck bombing
– FBI: ●http://www.fbi.gov/page2/feb08/tradebom_022608.html
– Washington Times: ●http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2003/sep/1/20030901-102359-9067r/?page=all
– United States vs. Yousef, et. al., indictment.
– The 9-11 Commission Report. July 22, 2004.

RELATED
Have you forgotten? World Trade Center bombing, 20 years later
LIST OF MAJOR ISLAMIC ATTACKS & PLOTS ON AMERICA…before 9/11

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